1. Organization and Basis of Presentation
|6 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2017
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]|
|Organization and Basis of Presentation||
Organization and Business – The consolidated financial statements include, for all periods presented, the accounts of Pacific Ethanol, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Pacific Ethanol”), and its direct and indirect subsidiaries (collectively, the “Company”), including its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Kinergy Marketing LLC, an Oregon limited liability company (“Kinergy”), Pacific Ag. Products, LLC, a California limited liability company (“PAP”), PE Op Co., a Delaware corporation (“PE Op Co.”) and eight of the Company’s ethanol production facilities. The Company’s acquisition of Illinois Corn Processing, LLC (“ICP”) was consummated on July 3, 2017, and as a result, the Company’s consolidated financial statements, for all periods presented, exclude the accounts of ICP. See Note 11 – Subsequent Events.
On December 15, 2016, the Company and Aurora Cooperative Elevator Company, a Nebraska cooperative corporation (“ACEC”), closed a transaction under a contribution agreement under which the Company contributed its Aurora, Nebraska ethanol facilities and ACEC contributed its Aurora grain elevator and related grain handling assets to Pacific Aurora, LLC (“Pacific Aurora”) in exchange for equity interests in Pacific Aurora. On December 15, 2016, concurrently with the closing under the contribution agreement, the Company sold a portion of its equity interest in Pacific Aurora to ACEC. As a result, as of December 15, 2016 and through June 30, 2017, the Company owned 73.93% of Pacific Aurora and ACEC owned 26.07% of Pacific Aurora. The Company consolidates 100% of the results of Pacific Aurora and records ACEC’s 26.07% equity interest as noncontrolling interests in the accompanying financial statements.
The Company is a leading producer and marketer of low-carbon renewable fuels and high-quality alcohol products in the United States. The Company owns and operates nine production facilities, four in the Western states of California, Oregon and Idaho, and five in the Midwestern states of Illinois and Nebraska. The Company’s four ethanol plants in the Western United States (together with their respective holding companies, the “Pacific Ethanol West Plants”) are located in close proximity to both feed and ethanol customers and thus enjoy unique advantages in efficiency, logistics and product pricing. These plants produce among the lowest-carbon ethanol produced in the United States due to low energy use in production.
The Company has production capacity of 605 million gallons per year, markets, on an annualized basis, nearly 1.0 billion gallons of ethanol, and produces, on an annualized basis, over 2.5 million tons of co-products such as wet and dry distillers grains, wet and dry corn gluten feed, condensed distillers solubles, corn gluten meal, corn germ, distillers yeast and CO2. The Company’s four ethanol plants in the Midwest (together with their respective holding companies, the “Pacific Ethanol Central Plants”) are located in the heart of the Corn Belt, benefit from low-cost and abundant feedstock production and allow for access to many additional domestic markets. In addition, the Company’s ability to load unit trains from these facilities in the Midwest, and barges from its Pekin, Illinois plants, allows for greater access to international markets.
Basis of Presentation–Interim Financial Statements – The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements and related notes have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for interim financial information and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X. Results for interim periods should not be considered indicative of results for a full year. These interim consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes contained in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016. The accounting policies used in preparing these consolidated financial statements are the same as those described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for a fair statement of the results for interim periods have been included. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts – Trade accounts receivable are presented at face value, net of the allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company sells ethanol to gasoline refining and distribution companies, sells distillers grains and other feed co-products to dairy operators and animal feedlots and sells corn oil to poultry and biodiesel customers generally without requiring collateral.
The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts for balances that appear to have specific collection issues. The collection process is based on the age of the invoice and requires attempted contacts with the customer at specified intervals. If, after a specified number of days, the Company has been unsuccessful in its collection efforts, a bad debt allowance is recorded for the balance in question. Delinquent accounts receivable are charged against the allowance for doubtful accounts once uncollectibility has been determined. The factors considered in reaching this determination are the apparent financial condition of the customer and the Company’s success in contacting and negotiating with the customer. If the financial condition of the Company’s customers were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of ability to make payments, additional allowances may be required.
Of the accounts receivable balance, approximately $36,505,000 and $64,853,000 at June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively, were used as collateral under Kinergy’s operating line of credit. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $16,000 and $331,000 as of June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively. The Company recorded a bad debt recovery of $5,000 and bad debt expense of $30,000 for the three months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The Company recorded a bad debt expense of $2,000 and $286,000 for the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The Company does not have any off-balance sheet credit exposure related to its customers.
Provision for Income Taxes – The Company recognized no tax benefit for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 due to the uncertainty of using its tax losses to offset future tax income. The Company recognized a tax benefit of $0.2 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016, as the Company has finalized certain of its tax returns. The Company applied a valuation allowance against the amount of deferred tax losses from the periods. To the extent the Company believes it can utilize these losses, it will adjust its provision (benefit) for income taxes accordingly in future periods.
Financial Instruments – The carrying values of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued liabilities and accrued PE Op Co. purchase are reasonable estimates of their fair values because of the short maturity of these items. The Company recorded its warrant liabilities at fair value. The Company believes the carrying value of its long-term debt approximates fair value because the interest rates on these instruments are variable, and are considered Level 2 fair value measurements.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements – In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued new guidance on accounting for leases. Under the new guidance, lessees will be required to recognize the following for all leases (with the exception of short-term leases) at the commencement date: (1) a lease liability, which is a lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease, measured on a discounted cash flow basis; and (2) a “right of use” asset, which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use the specified asset for the lease term. Under the new guidance, lessor accounting is largely unchanged, with some minor exceptions. Lessees will no longer be provided with a source of off-balance sheet financing for other than short-term leases. The standard is effective for public companies for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and for interim periods beginning after December 15, 2020. Early adoption is permitted. The Company has several operating leases that may be impacted by this guidance. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of this accounting standard on its consolidated results of operations and financial condition.
In May 2014, the FASB issued new guidance on the recognition of revenue. The guidance states that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The standard is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that reporting period. The Company’s adoption begins with the first fiscal quarter of fiscal year 2018. In March and April 2016, the FASB issued further revenue recognition guidance amending principal vs. agent considerations regarding whether an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods and services. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of this accounting standard update on its consolidated results of operations and financial condition. The Company has not yet selected a transition method, nor has it determined the effect of the standard on its ongoing financial reporting. The Company has begun the process in its evaluation and believes it is following an appropriate timeline to allow for proper recognition, presentation and disclosure effective beginning in the year ending December 31, 2018.
In April 2016, the FASB issued new guidance to reduce the complexity of certain aspects of accounting for employee share-based payment transactions. Prior to adoption of the standard, accruals of compensation costs were based on an estimated forfeiture rate. The new guidance allows an entity to make an entity-wide accounting policy election to either continue using an estimate of forfeitures or account for forfeitures only when they occur. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Effective January 1, 2017, the Company elected to discontinue the use of an estimated forfeiture rate and instead account for actual forfeitures as they occur. The transition guidance requires an adjustment to retained earnings for any cumulative effect. The impact to the Company upon adoption was determined to be immaterial.
Estimates and Assumptions – The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates are required as part of determining the fair value of warrants, allowance for doubtful accounts, net realizable value of inventory, estimated lives of property and equipment, long-lived asset impairments, valuation allowances on deferred income taxes and the potential outcome of future tax consequences of events recognized in the Company’s financial statements or tax returns, and the valuation of assets acquired and liabilities assumed as a result of business combinations. Actual results and outcomes may materially differ from management’s estimates and assumptions.
The entire disclosure for the business description and basis of presentation concepts. Business description describes the nature and type of organization including but not limited to organizational structure as may be applicable to holding companies, parent and subsidiary relationships, business divisions, business units, business segments, affiliates and information about significant ownership of the reporting entity. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS).
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef