ORGANIZATION AND BASIS OF PRESENTATION
|6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2018
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]
|Organization and Basis of Presentation
Organization and Business – The consolidated financial statements include, for all periods presented, the accounts of Pacific Ethanol, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Pacific Ethanol”), and its direct and indirect subsidiaries (collectively, the “Company”), including its subsidiaries, Kinergy Marketing LLC, an Oregon limited liability company (“Kinergy”), Pacific Ag. Products, LLC, a California limited liability company (“PAP”), PE Op Co., a Delaware corporation (“PE Op Co.”) and all nine of the Company’s ethanol production facilities.
The Company’s acquisition of Illinois Corn Processing, LLC (“ICP”) was consummated on July 3, 2017, and as a result, the Company’s accompanying consolidated financial statements include the results of ICP only as of December 31, 2017 and for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018.
The Company is a leading producer and marketer of low-carbon renewable fuels in the United States. The Company has a combined production capacity of 605 million gallons per year, markets, on an annualized basis, nearly 1.0 billion gallons of ethanol and specialty alcohols, and produces, on an annualized basis, over 3.0 million tons of co-products on a dry matter basis, such as wet and dry distillers grains, wet and dry corn gluten feed, condensed distillers solubles, corn gluten meal, corn germ, dried yeast and CO2.
The Company owns and operates nine production facilities, four in the Western states of California, Oregon and Idaho, and five in the Midwestern states of Illinois and Nebraska.
The Company’s four ethanol plants in the Western United States (together with their respective holding companies, the “Pacific Ethanol West Plants”) are located in close proximity to both feed and ethanol customers and thus enjoy unique advantages in efficiency, logistics and product pricing. These plants produce among the lowest-carbon ethanol produced in the United States due to low energy use in production.
The Company’s five ethanol plants in the Midwest (together with their respective holding companies, the “Pacific Ethanol Central Plants”) are located in the heart of the Corn Belt, benefit from low-cost and abundant feedstock production and allow for access to many additional domestic markets. In addition, the Company’s ability to load unit trains from these facilities in the Midwest allows for greater access to international markets.
As of June 30, 2018, all nine facilities were operating. As market conditions change, the Company may increase, decrease or idle production at one or more operational facilities or resume operations at any idled facility.
Basis of Presentation–Interim Financial Statements – The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements and related notes have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for interim financial information and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X. Results for interim periods should not be considered indicative of results for a full year. These interim consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes contained in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017. The accounting policies used in preparing these consolidated financial statements are the same as those described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, with the exception of revenue recognition, as discussed further below. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for a fair statement of the results for interim periods have been included. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts – Trade accounts receivable are presented at face value, net of the allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company sells ethanol to gasoline refining and distribution companies, sells distillers grains and other feed co-products to dairy operators and animal feedlots and sells corn oil to poultry and biodiesel customers generally without requiring collateral.
The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts for balances that appear to have specific collection issues. The collection process is based on the age of the invoice and requires attempted contacts with the customer at specified intervals. If, after a specified number of days, the Company has been unsuccessful in its collection efforts, a bad debt allowance is recorded for the balance in question. Delinquent accounts receivable are charged against the allowance for doubtful accounts once uncollectibility has been determined. The factors considered in reaching this determination are the apparent financial condition of the customer and the Company’s success in contacting and negotiating with the customer. If the financial condition of the Company’s customers were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of ability to make payments, additional allowances may be required.
Of the accounts receivable balance, approximately $56,412,000 and $64,501,000 at June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively, were used as collateral under Kinergy’s operating line of credit. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $64,000 and $19,000 as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. The Company recorded a bad debt recovery of $2,000 and $5,000 for the three months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The Company recorded a bad debt expense of $45,000 and $2,000 for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The Company does not have any off-balance sheet credit exposure related to its customers.
Benefit for Income Taxes – The Company recognized a tax benefit of $563,000 for the six months ended June 30, 2018 due to the Company’s reduction of its deferred tax asset valuation allowance due to the taxable losses incurred during the period. Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted on December 22, 2017, losses incurred after 2017 can be carried forward indefinitely. The Company does not expect additional tax benefits to be recognized during 2018 due to this provision. The Company recognized no tax benefit for the three months ended June 30, 2018 and the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 due to the uncertainty of using its tax losses to offset future taxable income. To the extent the Company believes it can utilize its tax losses, the Company will adjust its benefit for income taxes accordingly in future periods.
Comprehensive Loss – The Company’s accumulated other comprehensive loss relates to the Company’s pension plans. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, the Company’s consolidated loss and comprehensive loss were substantially the same amount.
Noncontrolling Interests – For the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, the changes to noncontrolling interests represented the net loss attributed to noncontrolling interests, with no other adjustment for the periods.
Financial Instruments – The carrying values of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities are reasonable estimates of their fair values because of the short maturity of these items. The Company believes the carrying value of its long-term debt approximates fair value because the interest rates on these instruments are variable, and are considered Level 2 fair value measurements.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements – In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued new guidance on accounting for leases. Under the new guidance, lessees will be required to recognize the following for all leases (with the exception of short-term leases) at the commencement date: (1) a lease liability, which is a lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease, measured on a discounted cash flow basis; and (2) a “right of use” asset, which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use the specified asset for the lease term. Under the new guidance, lessor accounting is largely unchanged, with some minor exceptions. Lessees will no longer be provided with a source of off-balance sheet financing for other than short-term leases. The standard is effective for public companies for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company expects that upon adoption of this accounting standard, right of use assets and lease obligations will be recognized in its consolidated balance sheets in amounts that will be material.
In May 2014, the FASB issued new guidance on the recognition of revenue (“ASC 606”). ASC 606 states that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The standard is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that reporting period. In March and April 2016, the FASB issued further revenue recognition guidance amending principal vs. agent considerations regarding whether an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods and services.
The provisions of ASC 606 include a five-step process by which an entity will determine revenue recognition, depicting the transfer of goods or services to customers in amounts reflecting the payment to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. ASC 606 requires the Company to apply the following steps: (1) identify the contract with the customer; (2) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (3) determine the transaction price; (4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (5) recognize revenue when, or as, the Company satisfies the performance obligation.
Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASC 606 using the modified retrospective method for all of its contracts. Following the adoption of ASC 606, the Company continues to recognize revenue at a point-in-time when control of goods transfers to the customer. This is consistent with the Company’s previous revenue recognition accounting policy under which the Company recognized revenue when title and risk of loss pass to the customer and collectability was reasonably assured. In addition, ASU 606 did not impact the Company’s presentation of revenue on a gross or net basis.
The Company recognizes revenue primarily from sales of ethanol and its related co-products.
The Company has nine ethanol production facilities from which it produces and sells ethanol to its customers through Kinergy. Kinergy enters into sales contracts with ethanol customers under exclusive intercompany ethanol sales agreements with each of the Company’s nine ethanol plants. Kinergy also acts as a principal when it purchases third party ethanol which it resells to its customers. Finally, Kinergy has exclusive sales agreements with other third-party owned ethanol plants under which it sells their ethanol production for a fee plus the costs to deliver the ethanol to Kinergy’s customers. These sales are referred to as third-party agent sales. Revenue from these third-party agent sales is recorded on a net basis, with Kinergy recognizing its predetermined fees and any associated delivery costs.
The Company has nine ethanol production facilities from which it produces and sells co-products to its customers through PAP. PAP enters into sales contracts with co-product customers under exclusive intercompany co-product sales agreements with each of the Company’s nine ethanol plants.
The Company recognizes revenue from sales of ethanol and co-products at the point in time when the customer obtains control of such products, which typically occurs upon delivery depending on the terms of the underlying contracts. In some instances, the Company enters into contracts with customers that contain multiple performance obligations to deliver volumes of ethanol or co-products over a contractual period of less than 12 months. The Company allocates the transaction price to each performance obligation identified in the contract based on relative standalone selling prices and recognizes the related revenue as control of each individual product is transferred to the customer in satisfaction of the corresponding performance obligations.
When the Company is the agent, the supplier controls the products before they are transferred to the customer because the supplier is primarily responsible for fulfilling the promise to provide the product, has inventory risk before the product has been transferred to a customer and has discretion in establishing the price for the product. When the Company is the principal, the Company controls the products before they are transferred to the customer because the Company is primarily responsible for fulfilling the promise to provide the products, has inventory risk before the product has been transferred to a customer and has discretion in establishing the price for the product.
The Company accounts for shipping and handling costs relating to contracts with customers as costs to fulfill its promise to transfer its products. Accordingly, the costs are classified as a component of cost of goods sold. See Note 2 for the Company’s revenue by type of contracts.
Estimates and Assumptions – The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates are required as part of determining the allowance for doubtful accounts, net realizable value of inventory, estimated lives of property and equipment, long-lived asset impairments, valuation allowances on deferred income taxes and the potential outcome of future tax consequences of events recognized in the Company’s financial statements or tax returns, and the valuation of assets acquired and liabilities assumed as a result of business combinations. Actual results and outcomes may materially differ from management’s estimates and assumptions.